도마뱀분양 Reptiles are fascinating animals that make an exciting addition to any pet family. Some even contribute to the ecological balance of our planet by consuming pest animals such as mice and insects.
Reptiles belong to the class Reptilia and are cold-blooded, air-breathing vertebrates. This class includes living and extinct species such as dinosaurs and pterodactyls. It also includes crocodiles and snakes such as the green anaconda.
Crocodilians, which are of the order Crocodylia, include 23 species of large, solidly built, lizard-like reptiles with elongated, flattened snouts and laterally compressed tails. They are carnivorous and have powerful jaws with conical teeth. Their skin is thick and cornified, with non-overlapping scales. Their eyes, ears, nostrils, and mouth are placed on top of their head.
During aquatic locomotion, crocodilians use the muscular tail to drive them through the water and their limbs are held close to their body to reduce drag. They are also able to move faster and change direction with gentle sinuous movements of the tail.
On land, crocodilians move in the “high walk” and the low walk. Both forms involve a sequence of limb movements that resembles the walking of mammals, with the right fore leg followed by the left hind leg and the belly held off the ground.
Crocodilian species range from the smallest, the Paleosuchus and Osteolaemus, to the saltwater crocodile, which can reach 7 도마뱀분양 m (23 ft) and weigh up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Many are well-adapted to their habitats, but they are vulnerable to human activities. They are often hunted for their meat, skins, and teeth, and their entangled fishnets can snag and kill domestic animals. They are also known to attack humans when they feel threatened or attracted by food. Several species, particularly the saltwater crocodile and Nile crocodile, have attacked humans; other species that occasionally do so are black caimans, Morelet’s crocodile, mugger crocodile, gharial, and American alligators.
The vast number of lizards found throughout the world offers great diversity in appearance, behavior and ecology. Like all reptiles, they have scales, a bony skeleton, paired limbs with 5 toes, leathery or hard-shelled eggs and a respiratory system based on lungs rather than gills. However, a lizard’s most distinctive features include its parrot-like feet with pads that grip the ground or surface they run on and separately mobile and stereoscopic eyes that can change color to blend in with their surroundings. Many lizards can also regrow lost limbs.
The order Squamata, which consists of the subgroups Geckos, Iguanas, Amphiuma and Worm lizards, is the largest group of squamate reptiles. It is sometimes grouped with snakes as the clade Reptilia, but ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) does not consider this to be a valid scientific grouping.
The lizards of the class Reptilia are cold-blooded and ectothermic. They rely on external heat sources to regulate their body temperature and can raise it by basking in the sun, or lower it by retreating into cool water or mud. They can move by walking, crawling or undulating their bodies, and some are capable of a slow-moving, gliding flight pattern. Insects, small tetrapods, plant matter and carrion are their usual food, but they can also feed on larger animals such as birds and mammals. Most lizards are oviparous, but some are ovoviviparous or viviparous – giving birth to live young.
Snakes are legless and ectothermic, meaning that they need an outside source of heat to regulate their body temperature. They have a dry, scaly skin and lay their eggs on land. They are often carnivorous, eating insects, snails, frogs, small mammals, birds, eggs and other reptiles. They can swallow prey much larger than their heads, and some even inject poison into their prey.
Snakes have two subclasses: Anapsida and Parapsida. Anapsids have skulls that are solid and lack temporal fossae, or openings in the skull near the temples. They are further subdivided into the Cotylosauria and Chelonia groups. These are ancient reptiles that became extinct during the Cretaceous period along with dinosaurs. Parapsids have skulls that can be categorized as either having a single or multiple temporal fossae. They are further divided into the Ichthyosauria and Plesiosaurus groups.
The classification of snake reptiles is also complex. Snakes are not usually social creatures, only coming together to mate. Males engage in ritual combat to woo females, which may include biting each other on the neck or twisting around each other’s head, known as “topping.” Females typically have the last say about whom they will mate with. Snakes are ovoviviparous, meaning they lay shelled eggs. Their eggs contain yolk and are usually fertilized internally. This is also the way that most amphibians fertilize their eggs.
Turtles are classified as reptiles, although they have some characteristics of amphibians. This means that they can survive on land or in water. They have lungs to breathe air and a three-chambered heart. They also have a dry, leathery skin and a cloacal membrane. In addition, they lay eggs.
The classification of turtles can get a bit complicated because there are different types of turtles. For example, there are freshwater turtles and sea turtles. The main difference between them is that sea turtles have a shell, while freshwater turtles do not. Then there are tortoises and terrapins, which are very similar to turtles.
In general, a turtle’s upper shell (called the carapace) can be used to identify it. The number, shape and arrangement of hard scales that cover the shell can tell you what species it is. In addition, the size of a turtle can help you determine which suborder it belongs to.
All turtles belong to the order Testudines, which is divided into two suborders: Cryptodira and Pleurodira. The former includes all living freshwater turtles and snapping turtles. The latter includes all living sea turtles, except the leatherback.
The Testudines include 14 families of turtles. The largest and most familiar is the Aldabra giant tortoise, which has a large dome-shaped shell. It can live up to 150 years. There are also a few other varieties of land-dwelling turtles called terrapins. These are a little smaller and include the red-eared slider and European pond terrapin.